Complaints of back pain in the low back are very frequent in emergency and outpatient medical practice. The severity of this situation is due to the fact that acute pain severely limits physical activity and disabled people.
This pain may occur occasionally, or chronic. Sometimes the pain disappears, but may again after the lifting of gravity; sharp torso; long sitting on the uncomfortable height of the table.
The main reason for this may be:
The most common disease. Usually found in middle-aged and older people, but young people are not immune from the manifestations of these symptoms. For this condition is that it is a separate address in medicine – "lumbago".
Pain in lumbago occurs against a background of strong physical exertion or a sudden awkward movement, and is so intense that the person is "locked" in one position. When you try to change the body posture for a more comfortable - the pain is worse. Affect the occurrence of pain, in addition to physical activities, maybe hypothermia.
Determining the causes of lumbago are:
The pain of lumbago is very sharp, sharpener, so that is a pain, which is also called "lumbago". Sometimes cross even stopping to take a deep breath and breathe out air. In the supine, relaxed position gradually the pain disappears. Patients feel as if in the loins "something fell into place".
The pain below the waist is often spread in the legs. It can be acute or chronic. Occurs on the background of physical activity, after exposure.
The reason may be:
More common is the complaint of pain in the back and the lower back, directly to the right of the page. This is a possible sign of renal colic.
Symptoms: the pain radiates in the abdomen, the genitals. Sometimes patients feel an acute urge to urinate.
The character of the pain is very sharp and intense. It is an essential condition, that requires immediate medical intervention. In this case, the first step is to call an Ambulance.
All the small ligaments, joint capsule, connective tissue sheath, the bone - all of this in all of its functions, which allows us to move, to monitor spatial and sensitivity to pain. Factors, trauma, excessive stress, displacement of the articular processes, leading to inflammatory reactions that cause pain.
The sudden pressure on the muscles can lead to partial injury of the muscles or ligaments. For a small injury, maybe even a healthy person with a particular injury. The pain is usually accompanied by muscle spasm, which passes through several days, in the case of light or a few weeks in more severe injury. The pain gradually becomes dull, not sharp.
This pain is felt when there is stenosis of the nerve roots due to narrowing of the spinal canal and the holes between the vertebrae or a herniated vertebral disc in between.
The cause of the stenosis is considered a degenerative change of the nerve roots. In some cases, carry out the operation – laminektomie. This procedure allows you to provide access to the spinal cord through dissection of a vertebral arch. So, remove or even completely eliminate the pressure on the nerve roots.
Pressure on the roots, which is due to age-related changes, so that young people almost do not affect this disease.
Pain, when stenosis occurs in the back, then extend the leg. The man walks with a limp. Accompanied by a feeling of numbness, dull aching pain.
This disease develop gradually. According to statistics, the acute attacks of pain in the hernia between vertebrae occur in people thirty years of age and older. The symptoms manifested by each person differently, but there are common features: for example, one limping, avoiding a heavy burden on the side of the patient, the patient keeps the body in a bent condition. If during the examination the doctor asked to bend, straighten, rotate the affected leg, he will note that the patient has reduced range of motion.
In a group of diseases in which pain in the back and loins occurs in youth and middle age are:
Osteomyelitis – inflammation of bone marrow, which affect the outer layer of the bone and substance of bone. Osteomyelitis of the spine is often found among people afflicted with infections of the urogenital; diabetes; skin infections; dermatological infections. The main symptom is pain in the lower part of the back, increased by walking. Accompanied by a state of weakness and fever. The causative agent of osteomyelitis is Staphylococcus aureus.
Osteomyelitis can get sick, and children. Bacteria that form the pus has spread to the bones and outer layer of the bone and reduce the bone. In infants bone damage, which leads to the formation of arthritis (disease of the joints).
Way of penetration of causative agent of osteomyelitis:
Spondylolisthesis - displacement of the fifth lumbar vertebra to the sacrum. The symptoms of this disease varies depending on the severity of the degenerative changes.
Main complaints: back pain, hip pain, tibia; great weakness. Due to muscle spasm, reduced range of motion. All concussion of the spine increase the pain, walking, in patients who become careful and soft. Depending on the degree of displacement of the vertebrae is divided into four main stages characterized according to the shift percentage: up to 25% from 25% to 50% from 50% to 75% from 75% and more.
Fibromyalgia is an inflammatory process in the fibrous connective tissue.
Symptoms: pain along the entire body, the lower mobility of the spine, weakness in the morning after sleep. Intensity of pain: moderate to very strong. According to statistics, the fibromyalgia is mostly found among the middle-aged women. Patients often complain of sleep problems, headache that occur after overstrain, after an emotional stress.
acroiliitis revenue usually in conjunction with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic inflammation of the intestinal system. This disease is not as common; they are ill mostly young people.
In a group of diseases that have emerged in later years, after 50 years, include:
Osteoporosis is a reduction in the density of bone tissue, due to which it becomes fragile and brittle. This is a very common cause of pain in lower back caused by metabolic disorders, particularly a lack of calcium. The disease is characterized by advanced age; hurt, both women and men.
Spondylosis is generated gradually due to wear and cracking between the vertebrae. Occur stretching of the joints, degenerative changes that occur in the outer parts of the disk. The causes can be too long load on the musculoskeletal system and injuries of the spine. Symptoms of spondylosis is pain in the low back, increase the inflammatory process. At first, the pain is not too strong and occurs during prolonged physical activity; subsequently, the pain becomes intense and occurs also when coughing. Acute pain accompanying spasms of the muscles around the vertebrae.
Tumors of the spine – not a very common disease. Young people develop benign tumors affecting the posterior apophysis of the vertebra. Older people develop malignant tumors, which include the anterior apophysis of the vertebra.
The defeat of spine metastases is a common procedure. It is important that in 25% of cases are the main cause of injury is back pain.
This fact again recalls to the pain in the back and the cross is usually a reliable sign of the disease.
During pregnancy many women feel a constant nagging pain in the back and the waist. The mechanism of this pain increases the secretion of the hormone relaxin, whose function is to soften the ligaments in the lumbosacral (to prepare the birth canal for the passage of the fetus). Because relaxin is not selective exposure, it affects all ligaments, which causes pain in the lumbar spine, which has increased in connection with increasing weight of the pregnant women.
The increasing weight shifts the center of the torso forward, the lumbar and pelvic muscles strain to balance the body. This is due to excessive stress in these muscles increases the pain.
Simple tips for pregnant women, which will help reduce the intensity of pain in the back and the cross:
In the relaxin softening ligaments is common, but not the only cause of pain in the low back and low back pain in pregnant women. Sometimes a herniated disc or sciatica.
Sharp lower back pain 38 weeks of pregnancy can mean the beginning of the part. Therefore, in such conditions it is necessary to call the doctor.
Since there are so many causes of back pain and pain in the low back, often the situation arises when it is difficult to distinguish one disease from another with similar symptoms.
The diagnosis is carried out by the following methods:
Computed tomography allows identification of structural changes of the vertebrae; the changes associated with the history of infections; fractures; osteoporosis; tumors; arthritis.
The computer test assesses three main parameters: the condition of the bones, soft tissues and blood vessels.
Myelography is a radiopaque overview of the pathways of the spinal cord. Indicated in all pathological conditions in which reduced clearance of the channel of the spine for tumors, stenosis, hernia. A contrast agent (often xenon gas) is introduced into the spinal cord, then conduct x-ray examination.
If the primary data obtained radiographic studies are not informative in General, shows a radionuclide scan (scintigraphy). This method allows you to diagnose neoplastic growths, arthritis and other diseases. This method is quite costly and does not always apply.
The treatment of back pain and back pain with unclear etiology is symptomatic and includes bed rest, use of sedatives, analgesics and preparations, relieving inflammation. Also effective is the prescription of muscle relaxants, reduce muscle tension and thus relieves pain.
Lack of physical activity in a working day is a distinctive feature of the work in the office. Position without movement for long periods in an awkward position and provoke too much stress on the joints and cause pain, discomfort and gradual destruction of the cartilage. Therefore, office workers are advised to regularly do exercises, and they need the resources for the protection and regeneration of the cartilage tissue, chondroprotector.
If, after the completion of the diagnostic procedures that represent the definitive diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe appropriate conservative treatment, and in some cases decide on the appropriateness of surgical treatment. Not always effective relief of the symptoms due to the disease itself is not going away. Therefore, the treatment should be such, which will work to eliminate the causes of pain.
Patients are osteopathy, including the physiological mechanisms of self-regulation processes in the body.
Most importantly – do not self-heal, but to consult with a qualified professional who will identify and develop the correct tactics of treatment.